From the 1st to the 3rd centuries A.D., the territory of Istria (present-day Croatia) was a prominent area of olive oil production. Archaeologists have identified the so-called Dressel 6B amphora as the main container used in the transport and trade of this oil. So far archaeology and epigraphy have helped identify probable sources of production and two workshops in Istria, and have also allowed the reconstruction of main trade routes through the identification of stamped amphorae. However, much less is known about the organization of the production of these ceramic containers, which may have been conducted on an almost industrial scale. This preliminary study demonstrates how chemical analysis using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) may address this question and provide new answers and avenues of inquiry.